Journal of College of Physical Education https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess <div class="lRu31" dir="ltr"><span class="HwtZe" lang="en"><span class="jCAhz JxVs2d ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">The Journal of Physical Education Sciences was established, issued by the Deanship of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Babylon.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz JxVs2d ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Iraq in 2002 by issuing the first issue of the magazine, and 15 years after its founding, the magazine still continues to issue four issues annually, in addition to its contribution to issuing special issues for the scientific conferences hosted by the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Babylon, namely the Fourteenth Scientific Conference 2011 for colleges and departments of physical education.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz JxVs2d"><span class="ryNqvb">In Iraq and the International Scientific Conference for Sports Sciences 2014.</span></span></span> <div class="OvtS8d"> </div> <div id="ow1457"> </div> </div> <div class="UdTY9 WdefRb" aria-hidden="true" data-location="2"> </div> Babylon University / College of Physical Education en-US Journal of College of Physical Education 1992-0695 The effect of special exercises according to the (Karen) model on motor coordination and learning the skill of serving of volleyball for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1449 <p>The research aims to prepare special exercises according to the Karen model in motor coordination and learning the skill of serving with volleyball for students, and to identify the effect of special exercises according to Karen’s model in motor coordination and learning the skill of serving with volleyball for students, as well as to identify the differences between pre- and post-tests. The researchers used the experimental method, and this is what they consider consistent and compatible with the specifications of the study and achieving the research objectives. The research population was determined by the second-year students at the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Kirkuk for the academic year (2023-2024), who numbered (91) students and were distributed into (2) divisions. The researchers chose the research sample in a deliberate manner. Failing students, deferred students, and students were excluded. They are not committed to working hours and transportation and are players. Division (A) was chosen as the control group and Division (B) in the experimental group. The number of each division was (15) students. As for the sample of the exploratory experiment, which numbered (5), they were excluded from interest in applying new models that carry with them methods based on behavioral and constructivist theories and meaningful learning that contribute to raising the level of students and developing the educational process.</p> Muhammad Adel Jamal Asst. Prof. Dr. Fouad Abdel Latif Ghaidan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 7 24 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.7-24 The impact of a (Counseling-Psychological) Curriculum to improving the psychological reassurance of students of the University of Babylon football team https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1450 <p>Through the researcher’s experience, reviewing and watching many tournaments, he noticed that many students who represent the university team suffer from being exposed to many pressures (the pressures of training and sports competition), in addition to the anxiety that accompanies the tournament and the fear of not achieving results, which leads to a weak level required in training or competition. Therefore, it was necessary to have a factor of psychological reassurance, which leads to working to raise the level of the student and reduce the impact of the negative factors that negatively affect the outcome of the match. Therefore, the researcher decided to prepare a (guidance-psychological) curriculum for students in football and the extent of its positive impact on the factor of psychological reassurance because Psychological exercises are one of the important factors that complement the physical and skill factors, which makes the player maintain an acceptable level in order to achieve good results. The research aimed to prepare a measure of the psychological reassurance of the Babylon University football team, as well as prepare a (counseling-psychological) approach to develop the psychological reassurance of the Babylon University football team, and to know its impact on developing the psychological reassurance of the Babylon University football team.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asst. Lec. Sarmad Fadel Abdel Rahim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 25 35 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.25-35 Design a wall pad to measure the motor frequency of the upper limbs and determine the level of neuromuscular fitness of boxers https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1451 <p>Therefore, the importance of research was demonstrated in designing a wall pad to measure the motor frequency of the upper extremities and know the level of neuromuscular fitness of boxers. There is no accurate measurement to measure the motor frequency of the upper extremities and know the level of neuromuscular fitness of boxers with regard to the straight and side punches, and if they exist, they are field and not an electronic device, and they were built in An environment that is not compatible with the boxer’s environment and is not regulated, as most trainers in the game of boxing in general and trainers in particular suffer from the lack of a device with such high accuracy that measures two characteristics at the same time with the aim of determining the level of frequency of the boxers’ upper extremities in order to know the weak points and address them and strengthen the strengths. This can only come through tests that measure the speed of frequency of the upper limbs of a boxer of all categories during training or in an abnormal application, as the test that measures the speed of frequency of the upper limbs and the neuromuscular fitness of boxers is a general test and is not specialized in a specific game, as the designed wall pad It has the ability to measure neuromuscular fitness in a manner commensurate with the boxer’s performance during periods of real combat and even in training, whether from movement or from a stationary position. The aim of the articleis to design a wall pad to measure the motor frequency of the upper limbs and to know the level of neuromuscular fitness of boxers. Also, identifying the frequency of the upper extremities’ hesitation of the boxer’s two (second) punches.</p> Lec. Dr. Amjad Muhammad Wahab Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 36 46 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.36-46 The effect of a rehabilitation program on the efficiency of the quadriceps muscles in athletes with simple ruptures https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1452 <p>Nutrition is the foundation that supports athletic performance. If the foundation is weak, performance will suffer and the athlete will end up sustaining several sports injuries. Malnutrition also increases the risk of sports injuries. When muscles are excessively damaged, they stimulate inflammatory hormones that help destroy tissue and prevent the production of new tissue. These inflammatory responses depend on total muscle mass and can be affected by nutrition and nutritional supplements, including isoprotein. Here lies the importance of the researchers choosing, after consulting nutrition experts, that this type of supplement be in addition to rehabilitative exercises in rehabilitating athletes who suffer from torn anterior thigh muscles. The research problem was through answering some questions: Is it possible to prepare a rehabilitation program accompanied by a nutritional supplement to rehabilitate the injury of a simple tear of the thigh muscles? The aim of the research is to prepare a rehabilitation program accompanying the nutritional supplement iso-protein and apply it to athletes with a simple tear of the thigh muscles. The research sample represented the clubs of Al-Muthanna Governorate, Al-Markaz, who were exposed to a torn anterior thigh muscle injury, and they numbered (4).</p> Asst. Lec. Bushra Hussein Alwan Prof. Dr. Wisam Shalal Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 47 54 The effect of harmonic exercises using the Rehacom system on mental alertness and developing motor response speed for handball goalkeepers aged (11-12) years https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1453 <p>The importance of the research lies in describing mental alertness exercises as a variable that affects the level of performance. Therefore, the researcher decided to use mental alertness exercises in handball, to be a ready tool to identify the level of focus and attention of goalkeepers. Hence, it will have a positive impact on the match. The research problem was that there was a weakness in the speed of the goalkeepers’ motor response during the process of defending their goal. They are exposed to a kind of loss of attention and lack of concentration. Which causes a weakness in their motor performance. Therefore, the possibility of using new methods and methods is the ideal solution for developing goalkeepers’ abilities and increasing their mental alertness. The research aims to identify mental alertness exercises through the use of the Rehacom cognitive system. The researcher assumes that there are significant differences between the pre- and post-tests for the variables under research and in favor of the post-tests. The research sample was handball goalkeepers aged between (11-12) years and the researcher used the Rehacom knowledge system and the statistical portfolio as tools for the research (SPSS) in processing the data, and the researcher concluded that the variable of mental alertness, and through the training program prepared in the Rehacom system, had a very clear impact on the improvement and development of the variable of mental alertness and response speed among goalkeepers.</p> Lec. Dr. Wejdan Sabih Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 55 73 The cooperative education method (group competition) and its impact to learning the skills of dribbling and passing of Football for students. https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1455 <p>The research aimed to: identify the method of cooperative education in the style of (group competition) and its impact on learning the skills of dribbling and passing in football for first-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Al-Qadisiyah University for the academic year (2023-2024). The researcher used the experimental method. The research community included (91) students. While the research model was selected through a simple random lottery pattern, such that the experimental (A) students were (20) students, and the control (B) group students were (20) students. The exploratory sample included (10) students from Division (H). The educational program lasted for eight weeks, with two educational units per week, on days (Monday and Wednesday). The duration of the unit was (90) minutes. The researcher reached the conclusions that the method of cooperative learning is in the style of group competition. A positive and effective role in teaching students the skills of dribbling and passing of football. He recommends emphasizing the development of positive attitudes among teachers of sports activities, towards exploiting various teaching methods and methods, including the method of cooperative learning in a competitive manner, due to the positive results it has achieved.</p> Lec. Dr. Majid Hussein Masir Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 74 86 The effect of the Perkins and Blythe model to learning some offensive skills of handball for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1456 <p>The research aimed to identify the effect of using the Perkins and Blythe model in learning some offensive skills in handball for students. The research assumed that there were statistically significant differences between the results of the pre- and post-tests for the experimental and control groups in learning some offensive handball skills among members of the research sample. The researcher used the experimental method by designing two equal control and experimental groups. The research sample consisted of (40) students from the second stage in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - Al Ain University for the academic year 2023/2024 AD, constituting (23%) of the community of origin. They were divided randomly and in a manner The lottery was divided into two groups, control and experimental, with (20) students for each group. The educational curriculum was applied to the control group according to the method of the subject teacher in the college. As for the experimental group, the educational units were applied according to the Perkins and Blythe model, which amounted to (12) educational units, at the rate of two educational units per week for each group. The time of the educational unit was (90) minutes.</p> Prof. Dr. Rami Abdel Amir Hassoun Hussein Jabbar Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 87 106 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.87-106 The effect of faster interval exercises accompanied by an arginine supplement on the (CAT) enzyme, speed endurance, and achievement for 0500m runners under 20 years of age https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1460 <p>The importance of preparing exercises for faster intervals, with short positive recovery periods, and using a nutritional supplement, in the hope that this work will contribute to improving the special requirements of this competition, the most important of which is the ability to endure the special speed to combat the fatigue resulting from the physical effort exerted by the runners in an attempt to maintain the high speed acquired for the longest time. A possible period of time during which the best performance can be achieved, as well as the improvement of the catalase (CAT) enzyme. The research problem crystallized in taking an arginine supplement to reduce oxidative stress processes by improving the work of oxidative stress enzymes, as well as using a training method to treat low performance, which is faster interval training, in the hope that it will contribute to solving such a problem. The study aimed to prepare faster interval exercises accompanied by an arginine supplement, and to identify the effect of these exercises and the arginine supplement, and to identify the superiority of the effect between the first and second experimental groups. Among the most important hypotheses of the research, there is a positive effect of faster interval exercises and an arginine supplement, and the advantage of the second experimental group in oxidative stress enzymes and special speed endurance. The achievement is for runners, and one of the most important conclusions that the researchers reached is that faster interval training had a significant impact on improving the catalase (CAT) enzyme after physical effort, endurance of special speed, and the completion of a 5000-meter run, and that these training exercises accompanied by an arginine supplement had an advantage. About training alone.</p> Zaid Ahmed Hussein Prof.Dr. Alaa Falih Jawad Asst. Prof. Dr. Hussein Manati Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 107 125 The effect of a training curriculum with the help of electrical stimulation on the drawing strength and performance of the national junior team players with Archery https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1461 <p>The study aimed to identify the extent of the effect of using electrical stimulation accompanying exercises in developing pulling power and achievement. The research sample included members of the national team for juniors in bow and arrow, and they represented the entire research community, which numbered (10) players who were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups with a number of (5). ) for each group. This community was chosen intentionally, and they were tested in a pre-test to determine their overall level of pulling force. After implementing the training program prepared by the researcher on the experimental group, the researcher tested them in a post-test to determine the extent of their development.</p> Asst. Dr. Karim Hamad Kadhem Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 126 140 The effect of corrective exercises on some motor abilities of tennis players aged 13-15 years https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1467 <p>The research problem was determined through the researchers’ scientific and practical experience in the field of tennis training and their being faculty members at the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Karbala, as well as their knowledge of the reality of practical practices of the specialized centers in the sport of tennis, including the Al-Durrah Tennis Center in the Holy Governorate of Karbala, especially the study sample. For those who are 13-15 years old, there is a decline and weakness in some motor variables, including (balance, coordination, agility), which negatively affects skill performance and the emergence of multiple skill errors as a result of not using corrective exercises, and if they exist, they are few and not studied. From these points together, the problem of the study was crystallized, through which the researchers tried to select some corrective exercises that help and support the live model, through which we hope that they will help shorten and accelerate the learning time and thus develop the level of motor abilities of tennis players. The research aimed to identify the effect of corrective exercises on some of the motor abilities of tennis players aged 13-15 years. The researchers used the experimental approach with a single-group design, and the research population was determined by Karbala tennis players aged 13-15 years, who numbered (8) players. As they were all chosen as a sample for the research and in a comprehensive inventory method, the researchers concluded that corrective exercises achieved a positive and effective effect in their purposes for which they were developed by providing the largest number of motor abilities such as motor coordination, agility and balance.</p> Sahib Abdul Hussein Mohsen Prof. Dr. Hassim Abdul Jabbar Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 141 153 The effect of the analogical thinking strategy using modeling to teaching some offensive principles of Handball for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1468 <p>The aim of the research is to prepare an educational curriculum according to the analogical thinking strategy using physical modeling in teaching some offensive tactical principles in handball to students and to identify the effect of the analogical thinking strategy using physical modeling and the method followed by the teacher (the prince) in teaching some offensive tactical principles in handball to students and also Identify which group is better, the experimental or control group, in teaching some offensive tactical principles in handball to students. The researchers used the experimental method (two equal groups) to achieve the research objectives. The research sample included third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Basra for the academic year (2022-2023) for the morning study, and the statistical program SPSS was used.</p> Prof. Dr. Hussein Ali Mohsen Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 17 3 154 167 The effect of using rehabilitation exercises for wrist joint injuries among advanced volleyball players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1469 <p>The research aimed to prepare rehabilitation exercises for wrist joint injuries in volleyball players for applicants, and to identify the effect of using rehabilitation exercises for wrist joint injuries in volleyball players for applicants. The researcher used the experimental method with one experimental group as it is the most appropriate method to address the research problem, and the research community was chosen intentionally. They are volleyball players for applicants in Diyala Governorate, divided into a group of clubs. The research sample was chosen randomly, namely the players with injuries in the wrist joint of the applicants in the Shahraban Volleyball Club, numbering (8) players. Through the results that appeared, the researcher concluded that the prepared exercises contributed to developing the strength and flexibility of the working muscles surrounding the wrist joint, which helped the players. To restore recovery and rehabilitation of injuries related to the wrist joint and the ability to achieve the best performance among volleyball players, through the results that emerged, the researcher recommends the use of exercises during regular periods and times in treating and rehabilitating the wrist joint for young players, in addition to the use of these exercises by specialists in the field of treatment and rehabilitation of athletes.</p> Asst. Lec. Mahmoud Ali Muhammad Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 17 3 168 178 Administrative leadership methods for coaches of Diyala Governorate football clubs https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1470 <p>The aim of the research is to identify the administrative leadership methods of coaches of Diyala Governorate football clubs. The researchers used the descriptive approach using the correlational method as it is the most appropriate method to address the research problem. The research community included Diyala Governorate football clubs who were chosen intentionally, while the research sample was chosen randomly. By lottery, they are the (Diyala, Shahraban and Al-Khalis) clubs, consisting of (10) coaches, divided into (4 coaches for the Diyala Sports Club,3 coaches of Shahraban Sports Club, 3 coaches of Al-Khalis Sports Club). Through the results that appeared, the researchers concluded that the members of the research sample had a good level of administrative leadership methods for coaches of Diyala Governorate football clubs, in addition to the presence of differences between the research members in favor of club coaches. Diyala Sports Club, and the results showed a convergence in the level of administrative leadership methods between the coaches of Al-Khalis Club and Shahraban Club. The researchers recommend the necessity of paying attention to administrative leadership methods in selecting coaches, and conducting scientific courses and workshops in developing administrative leadership methods in sports clubs and institutions.</p> Asst. Lec. Mustafa Riyad Adib Abd Samer Saadoun Abdel Reda Farhan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 179 189 The effect of special exercises with auxiliary means to increase explosive power and its relationship to the level of achievement of the 100 m sprint for young https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1471 <p>The progress achieved in the sports field and the selection of training methods and appropriate tools are among the factors that are given great importance in modern sports training. Among these training tools are rubber ropes and boxes of different heights, all of which contribute to raising the explosive power capacity of the individual and increasing the endurance of the body’s muscles. The problem of the research is that there is a decrease in the explosive power of 100-meter freestyle runners, so that everyone realizes the importance of the need for strength and speed exercises, but coaches rarely work to train these two qualities correctly, and therefore because of what some people believe that the effectiveness of fast running is characterized by inherited characteristics, or the belief of some coaches that athletes Strong people do not need strength exercises, and the strength they possess is what leads to improving speed. Therefore, through the practice of the researcher, being a coach and not an athlete, he rose to the use of some special exercises and the use of aids to solve this problem, which is one of the important matters for improving the achievement of the 100 m. The research aims to develop explosive power with special exercises for the youth 100m freestyle event. The research also aims to identify the effect of some special exercises and achieve the level of achievement. The researcher used the experimental method and the one-group method, and it was conducted on the players of the National Center for Sports Talent Welfare. Pre- and post-tests were conducted for the research variables, and the training units continued from 12/14/2024 until 2/8/2024.</p> Asst. Lec. Ahmed Mohammed Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 190 198 The effect of positional play training to developing endurance and offensive skill performance of young football players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1474 <p>The importance of the research was to prepare exercises in the positional play style in developing the endurance of the offensive skill performance of young football players, as well as identifying the effect of exercises in the positional play style in developing the endurance of the offensive skill performance of young football players. The researcher used the experimental method with two equal groups with pre- and post-tests. The research community was determined from the players of Karbala Governorate clubs, the youth category, for the 2023-2024 sports season. The research sample was chosen by random method (lottery), and their number reached (20) players. The research sample was divided into two equal groups, a control group (10) players and an experimental group (10) players. As for the most important conclusions: Positional play training had a positive role in developing the endurance of the offensive skill performance of the youth category, and led to a noticeable development of the endurance of the offensive skill performance of the youth category of football players. As for the most important recommendations: the need to focus on using positional play-style exercises by football coaches because they are exercises of a competitive nature and similar to modern playing methods and have a significant impact on developing the variable under study, and to emphasize the use of these exercises in the preparation periods for sports teams. It is necessary to take these exercises in Other variables and other sporting events.</p> Lec. Dr. Khaled Habib Khuwaiber Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 199 216 A rehabilitation approach to injury to the medial tendons of the elbow joint and its effect on some physical variables for tennis players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1475 <p>Preparing rehabilitative therapeutic exercises that have a significant impact on the muscles working on the elbow joint for players with a stress injury after revealing the location of the injury and weakness in physical and skill performance is the primary purpose of our study in order to rehabilitate players with medial tendon injury and to know the extent of the impact of these rehabilitative exercises on some... Physical variables, because the development of the physical level plays a great importance in all psychological and skill aspects and the achievement of sports achievements. The research problem included some players who continue to play or train for long periods of time to use the elbow joint despite feeling some pain of varying intensity, especially in the medial side. This negatively affects the power of strikes, accuracy, and directing the ball to the correct place on the opponent’s court, in addition to weakness in returning fast and powerful balls. Therefore, the researchers decided to use therapeutic rehabilitation exercises that would help speed up the recovery of the injured muscles and the player’s return to practicing his specialized activity, as well as their positive effect on some physical variables. The study aimed to prepare a rehabilitation curriculum for injuries to the tendons of the medial muscles of the elbow joint and to know its effect on some physical variables, as well as to identify the differences in pre- and post-tests of physical variables. The researchers assumed that there are differences in the pre- and post-tests for physical and skill variables, in favor of the post-tests. The researchers used the experimental method and the research sample was determined intentionally for some clubs in Basra Governorate (Abu Al-Khasib Club - Shabab Al-Basri Club). The research sample consisted of (6) players suffering from stress injury.</p> Muhannad Qasim Khudair Prof. Dr. Qusay Saleh Mal Allah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 217 230 The teaching skills of physical education teachers from the supervisors’ point of view https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1476 <p>The importance of research shows the study of the teaching skills of faculty members from the point of view of physical education supervisors, which enhances the student’s ability to receive cognitive and practical information and apply it with ease. A number of studies conducted in these fields have proven that this imposes an urgent necessity, which is trying to find out The teaching skills of physical education teachers from the point of view of supervisors, which in turn will enable officials in educational institutions to diagnose the strengths to enhance and strengthen them and identify the weaknesses to address them. Therefore, the study aimed to identify the level of some teaching skills among physical education teachers from the point of view of supervisors. As for the research method, the researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method to suit the nature of the research problem. As for the research sample, the research community was determined by the intentional method of physical education supervisors in Dhi Qar Governorate. - Iraq: Their number reached (80) specialist educational supervisors. The researchers concluded that physical education teachers in Dhi Qar Governorate have a high level of teaching skills from the point of view of specialized supervisors. The researchers recommended that the physical education teacher pay attention to planning the educational process before meeting with students or students, which makes the teacher ready and able to employ teaching skills in their correct form.</p> Asst. Lec. Haider Rahima Thamer Asst. Lec. Ali Kamel Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 231 242 Job stability and its relationship to the organizational loyalty of physical education teachers to the sports activity directors in Sulaimani Governorate https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1477 <p>The research aimed to adapt the job stability scale for physical education teachers from their point of view. The organizational loyalty scale was adapted for physical education teachers from their point of view. And to identify the relationship between job stability and organizational loyalty of physical education teachers in the Directorate of Sports Activity in Sulaymaniyah. The human field was physical education teachers working in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate Education Directorate for the period of time 3/10/2024 until 4/11/2024. Where the spatial scope was: Directorate of Education and middle and secondary schools in Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The research community was identified from the physical education teachers in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate Education Directorate, who numbered (204) physical education teachers and schools and who continue to be permanently staffed in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate Education Directorate and distributed among the schools of the directorate. The researcher made a random sample of (50%) from the current research population, where the sample amounted to (102) male and female teachers.</p> Ass. Lec. Aram Jabbar hamah sa'ulihu Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 243 257 The effect of two training methods (pendulum and play) to developing some physical abilities of advanced tennis players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1478 <p>The importance of the research is the combination of science and training to find the best training methods in achieving good results for tennis players. With science, it is possible to know the extent of the player’s ability to perform physically at a constant level and without fatigue during competition and throughout the match period, which sometimes exceeds more than (6) hours. After knowledge, it is possible to develop the appropriate training method to adapt to that environment, as in the pendulum training and playing methods, and continue training in it for the purpose of entering the competition and completing the match without falling in level. The most important objectives of the research were to identify the effect of the two training methods (pendulum and play) in developing some of the physical abilities of advanced tennis players. The researchers concluded that the two training methods (pendulum and play) achieved the goals of sports training in developing some of the physical abilities of advanced tennis players, and therefore it was recommended to adopt my method. Training (pendulum and play) because it achieves the goals of sports training in developing some of the physical abilities of advanced tennis players.</p> Asst. Lec. Ahmed Shehab Ahmed Prof. Dr. Haider Abdul Razzaq Kadhem Prof. Dr. Mekki Jabbar Odeh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 258 273 The effect of Posner's model to learning the skill of serving from above of volleyball for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1480 <p>The research aims to identify the effect of Posner's model and the method used in learning the skill of serving from above in volleyball for students in the control and experimental research groups. The researchers used the experimental method, as the research population included (97) students, and the research sample reached (40) students from the fifth grade of middle school at Martyr Adel Nasser Secondary School for Boys within the General Directorate of Education in Babylon Governorate for the academic year 2023/2024, as the sample was divided into two groups. With (20) students for each group. The experimental group is taught using the Posner model, and the second group is taught using the method used by the teacher. As for statistical methods, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and Spearman-Brown equation were used. The researchers concluded that Posner's model is effective, within the limits within which the current research was conducted, in learning fifth-grade middle school students the skill of serving from above with volleyball, compared to the method followed in teaching. Applying the steps of Posner's model also helped to stimulate students' motivation toward learning and their love of participating in Different educational situations in the lesson.</p> Bilal Muhammad Ali Muhammad Farid Prof. Dr. Haider Mahmoud Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 274 285 Home isolation and its impact on the physical activity of children in the primary stage https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1481 <p>Home isolation is one of the important measures to confront the COVID-19 pandemic that governments imposed on the whole world, including the Iraqi government, in order to reduce the spread of the disease among people and preserve public health. Although it is an effective measure against this disease, it has several negatives, including its impact on activity. Physical activity for humanity in general and children in particular, as a long period of sitting at home leads to lack of movement, decreased physical activity, increased periods of general inactivity, and sitting in front of screens for long periods, which negatively affected the psychological state of the child, in addition to a significant increase in children’s weight. Hence the idea of ​​the research came to study the effect of home isolation on physical activity, by presenting several questions related to the research variables from the point of view of parents, and the research hypotheses were chosen using a set of statistical methods that were analyzed in SPSS and using Google Drive models. The electronic questionnaire form was published on social media (facebook, whatsapp), and the researcher reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which was home isolation that led to a significant decrease in children’s physical activity in general, and that the closure of schools and entertainment centers had significant negative effects on children’s physical activity. The researcher recommends that parents of children participate in some simple and entertaining motor games that can be performed at home, which increase physical activity and improve the psychological state of children.</p> Heba Adnan Mahmoud Al-Mallah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 286 299 Organizational climate according to some variables (experience_gender_degree) for physical education teachers in Diwaniyah Governorate https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1482 <p>The study aimed to build a measure of the organizational climate for physical education teachers. The researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method and correlational relationships to suit the nature and problem of the research. The research community was limited to physical education teachers in the Al-Qadisiyah Education Directorate for the academic year (2022-2023), who numbered (450) male and female teachers. The sample of the study, which was chosen intentionally, numbered (411) male and female physical education teachers, which constituted (90%) of the total research population. As a practical procedure, the organizational climate scale was built, consisting of (5) domains. The researcher presented each domain and its paragraphs to experts and specialists to determine its validity for the purpose of applying the scale to the research sample. The scientific foundations of the scale were extracted and the data was transcribed using statistical methods in the (SPSS) program, and through presentation, analysis, and discussion. Results of the study: The following conclusions were reached: there are positive correlations between the organizational climate and other variables, there is also an influence relationship between the organizational climate on the one hand and other variables on the other hand, in addition to the presence of an effect of interaction between the elements of the organizational climate and its reflection on other variables. In light of the conclusions reached by the researchers, they recommended the following: Adopting the (organizational climate) scale to measure these variables among physical education teachers on a regular basis.</p> Haider Kamel Ibrahim Asst. Prof. Dr. Thamer Hassan Kaht Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 300 317 The effect of special exercises using rubber ropes to developing performance endurance and scoring accuracy for young football players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1483 <p>This study addressed several axes, including the introduction to the research and the importance of using special exercises using rubber ropes. The importance of the research lies in preparing these exercises by working with this method of exercises with rubber ropes, and the rest periods are short, as the researchers believe that it affects the performance endurance of football players. Football, in addition to developing the skill of accurate scoring for football players. These exercises improve the player's ability to complete the match in the best possible way in terms of outstanding high performance for advanced football players, and thus the player's performance is reflected at the team level, as it requires him to perform better from both functional and skill aspects throughout the duration of the match. Through the researchers' field experience, they noticed that there is a weakness in the functional aspect, and this weakness leads to the player being unable to continue performing until the end of the match. Therefore, the researchers decided to prepare special exercises using rubber ropes that would have a positive effect on the performance endurance of football players, as well as the skill of scoring accuracy for football players. The research aims to prepare exercises using rubber ropes for football players, as well as identifying the effect of exercises using rubber ropes on endurance performance as well. Scoring accuracy skill for football players.</p> Asst. Lec. Watheq Shaker Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 318 335 The effect of exercises accompanied by the smart system on some of the coordination abilities of handball Goalkeepers aged 13-15 years https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1484 <p>The research problem was identified through the researchers’ scientific experience in the field of handball training, and after examining the goalkeepers of the Karbala Educational Team, especially the study sample who were 13-15 years old, they noticed that there was a weakness in the coordination abilities, especially (balance, quick response, and adaptation to changing situations). They have slow access to the ball at the specified time, and there is also a weakness in the skill aspect of goalkeepers as a result of insufficient attention to this category, in addition to the reliance of coaches on traditional exercises and avoiding the use of modern devices and techniques in training, which negatively affects skill performance. The goalkeeper needs twice as much effort as the rest of the players, as well as the coordination abilities and special basic skills that the holder of this position possesses in order to reach a high level. This effort requires a long period to obtain these results, and the use of technology and modern devices has a fundamental and important role in The training process, especially the age groups, and this is what the researchers seek to go through this experience using smart devices to contribute to developing the capabilities of goalkeepers and raising the level of performance. The researchers aimed to prepare exercises, accompanied by the Smart Organization, for handball goalkeepers aged (13-15) years. The researchers used the experimental approach in a one-group design, and the research population was determined by the players of the Karbala Educational Team, aged 13-15 years, who numbered (6) goalkeepers, who were selected. All as a sample for research and in a comprehensive inventory method.</p> Asst. Lec. Hussein Mahdi Saleh Prof. Dr. Hassim Abdul Jabbar Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 336 350 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.336-350 Designing a model to evaluate the reality of the teaching practices of physical education teachers in Babylon Governorate https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1485 <p>The research aimed to evaluate the reality of the teaching practices of male and female physical education teachers in Babylon Governorate by designing a model to evaluate the reality of these teaching practices as they define them themselves.&nbsp; The researcher adopted the descriptive survey method because it suits the nature of the research, and the questionnaire was used as a means of collecting data after designing it according to scientific steps. The researcher prepared a questionnaire that included (51) items in its final form, fulfilling the conditions of honesty and reliability, and distributed among (5) axes. And (94) female teachers, distributed according to the variables of gender, academic qualification (home, institute, college) and years of experience. After collecting data from members of the research sample, it was processed statistically using a t-test for two independent samples, analysis of variance (F), and a Scheffé test to test differences in means. The researcher concluded that the male and female physical education teachers and the various institutions of their graduation and years of experience in Babylon Governorate possess a sufficient amount of teaching practices for the physical education lesson. Likewise, graduates of male and female teachers’ institutes perform better in teaching practices than their peers, male and female graduates of the Teachers’ House, male and female teachers, and graduates of the College of Physical Education. Years of experience are a positive factor in empowering all institutions to graduate them in teaching practices.</p> Dr. Abeer Muhammad Nouri Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 351 376 The preference for selecting volleyball referees according to refereeing performance and differentiation in legal knowledge https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1488 <p>The discriminant analysis method is considered one of the most important statistical methods used to process data and also to identify areas of weakness and errors, pay attention to them and reduce them, and improve the process of selecting satisfactory and unsatisfactory referees in the game of volleyball. Through monitoring the researchers, they noticed that there is a disparity in the referees’ refereeing performance, and this indicates that There is a problem in the process of selecting rulers without relying on modern and scientific methods. The research aims to identify the level of legal knowledge of referees working in the Iraqi Central Volleyball Federation, as well as identifying the discriminatory connotations of the legal knowledge of referees working in the Central Iraqi Volleyball Federation, identifying the odds ratios of satisfactory and unsatisfactory referees according to refereeing performance and the differentiation of legal knowledge. The researchers used the descriptive approach in a status quo style, and the researchers defined the research population as (60) first-class volleyball referees for the season (2023-2024). The researchers chose the construction sample of (50) referees, who constituted a percentage of (83%), and the main research sample The number of (30) referees constituted a percentage of (50%), with (15) referees rated satisfactory according to the performance evaluation form and (15) unsatisfactory referees also according to the classification of the same form. The researchers chose (15) referees for exploratory experience, which constituted a percentage of (25%).</p> Sarmad Abdul Redha Prof. Dr. Hussein Abdel Zahra Prof. Dr. Hassan Ali Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 377 397 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.377-397 The teacher's emotional leadership behaviors and their role to enhancing developmental relationships during a physical education lesson from the point of view of secondary school students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1490 <p>The research aimed to identify the role played by emotional leadership behaviors of physical education teachers in enhancing developmental relationships during the lesson, after identifying the level of both emotional leadership behaviors of physical education teachers, and developmental relationships during the physical education lesson, by preparing two measurement tools through the From the perspective of middle school students, the researcher used the descriptive approach with both survey methods and correlational relationships to suit the nature of the research and answer its questions. The researcher defined the research population as students of middle schools affiliated with the Baghdad Al-Karkh First Directorate of Education for the academic year (2023-2024), amounting to (21,140) students active in (47) middle schools, while the main research sample included (379) students who were randomly selected from The research community, and then the researcher divided the main research sample into three subgroups, the first representing the exploratory research sample and its members (19) students. While the second group represents the preparation sample, which includes (216) students, while the third group represents the final application sample, which includes (144) students. In order to obtain data, the researcher prepared two measurement tools. The first tool aims to measure the level of emotional leadership behaviors among students. Physical education teachers. As for the second tool, it aims to measure the level of developmental relationships during a physical education lesson. Both tools are measured from the point of view of middle school students, by following a set of scientific steps that represent the procedures for preparing standards.</p> Asst. Lec. Adnan Khamis Ahmed Al-Issawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 377 397 The emotional contagion of the physical education lesson and its role in the interactive quality among secondary school students affiliated with the first Baghdad Al-KarkhEducation Directorate https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1491 <p>The research aims to determine the level of emotional contagion of the physical education lesson in the middle schools of the First Karkh Education Directorate from the point of view of its students, as well as determining the level of interactive quality among the students of the middle schools of the First Karkh Education Directorate from their personal point of view, and determining the role played by the emotional contagion of the education lesson. Sports in the interactive quality among students. The researcher used the descriptive approach in the survey method and the correlational method to collect data, and the students of the middle schools affiliated with the Baghdad Al-Karkh Education Directorate for the first academic year (2023-2024), numbering (9400) students, who numbered (9400) students, were identified as the research community, and the research chose from this community the main research sample, which amounted to The number of students in these schools is (370), and the main sample was divided into three sub-samples: the exploratory sample, which consists of (10) students, and the preparation sample, which consists of (216) students. Finally, the final application sample consists of (144) students. In order to obtain data, the researcher prepared an emotional contagion scale for the physical education lesson with a number of (12) items, and a measure of interactive quality among students with a number of (13) items, and the researcher processed the data that was collected. Through a set of statistical methods, the most important of which are (arithmetic mean, percentage, class length, exponential correlation coefficient, Spearman-Brown equation, Gutman equation, and simple linear regression equation)</p> Asst. Lec. Latif Ghani Naseef Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 420441 420441 The role of change management in the rational decisions of clubs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq from the point of view of members of their administrative bodies https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1492 <p>The research aimed to identify the level of change management and the relationship and percentage of contribution between change management and rational decisions in clubs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. When selecting the research sample, the researchers relied on a random method, as the number of the study sample reached (200) members of administrative bodies. The researchers used the statistical program spss to conduct the statistical analysis. One of the most important conclusions is that there is a significant difference between change management and sports clubs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq from the point of view of members of administrative bodies. There is a positive correlation, that is, statistically significant, between the level of change management and rational decisions from the point of view of members of administrative bodies in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. One of the most important recommendations is to work on implementing change management in the clubs of the Kurdistan region of Iraq, relying on and seriousness in turning to specialists from academics to increase the efficiency of the clubs and raise the administrative level of sports clubs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.</p> Darius William Corbel Prof. Dr. Ozer Saadi Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 442 471 Finding a predictive value for the achievement of running the 800 m in terms of some biochemical indicators among female students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1493 <p>The 800m event was discussed, and that some biochemical indicators have a direct impact on the students’ ability to continue performing with maximum effort and in the shortest possible time, as this event falls within the most difficult energy production systems, which is the lactic acid system. The importance of research is to find a predictive equation for the completion of this race in terms of some Biochemical indicators for them this equation will be a valuable tool for trainers. As for the problem of the research, and through the researcher’s follow-up of the local championships, he noticed that there is a difference in the completion of the 800 m event for women between high and low, and between one student and another, and one student and another. This may be one of the most important reasons for the quality and trends of the training provided to them or the study of the biochemical components of the female students. The research sample represents female students in the College of Education. Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Dohuk used special tests and measurements and used statistical laws rather than extracting results. The researcher concluded that the contribution of the hemoglobin Hp index had the highest percentage of contribution to the completion of 800 meters among female students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences. She recommended the need to pay attention to the percentages of the contribution that the study showed to the hemoglobin Hp index.</p> Asst. Lec. Amna Fariq Salih Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 472 487 10.33170/jocope.v17i3.472-487 The effect of physical exercises to developing some functional abilities and achieving the long jump https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1494 <p>The research aims to prepare physical exercises for female long jumpers, to identify the effect of physical exercises in developing some functional abilities and achieving the long jump. The researcher used the experimental method with the experimental and control groups as it is the most appropriate method to address the research problem. The researcher concluded that the regular training process according to physical exercises according to the energy systems contributes to the development of the functional abilities of the female athletes, and that the application of physical exercises, which were codified according to the energy systems, helped to develop the functional abilities and achievement of the long jump among the female athletes. The time period in applying physical exercises is sufficient to show development in the functional capabilities and achievement in the long jump among female athletes, and the researcher recommends the necessity of rationing training loads according to functional capabilities, due to their importance in developing the physiological, physical and health condition of female athletes. In addition to the use of physical exercises within the training units for individual female athletes, and the need for coaches to be informed of the importance of interfering between physical exercises within their training units due to the functional capabilities that the characteristic and nature of performing these events in track and field sports carry.</p> Asst. Lec. Sanaa Khaled Khazal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 488 499 Codifying the sports marketing media standard from the point of view of the administrative bodies of sports clubs in the first division league in Iraq https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1498 <p>The media has an essential role in developing the sports system, and sports are one of the important activities for media programs that have helped greatly in spreading sports culture and increasing demand for it, whether it increases its practitioners or followers. Through sports media, sports marketing began, which has become one of the areas that sports institutions rely on in Various countries as a result of the decline in financial funding sources accompanying the exorbitant costs required by these institutions in their various aspects. Therefore, this process is seen as the most successful option, through which it is possible to ensure the sustainability of economic recovery that can cover sports activities, in addition to providing financial profit that contributes to the process of growth and development of these institutions and in a way that is commensurate with the goals that they aspire to reach on the one hand, and makes them a place for expansion and spread. The importance of the current study lies in building and codifying the sports marketing media scale to identify its role in the sports field from the point of view of Iraqi sports club bodies and its role in achieving financial gains for them. Therefore, the researchers decided to delve into this problem by codifying the measure of marketing media and its role in the sustainability of sports clubs and achieving financial gains. Therefore, the researchers adopted the descriptive approach using the survey method and correlational relationships. The exploratory experiment was conducted on (10) of the members, and then... The researchers codified the media scale sports marketing.</p> Lec. Dr. Karar Ihsan Muhammad Asst. Lec. Abdul Samad Nassif Jassim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 500 519 Emotional control and its relationship to the tactical performance of first-class football club players https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1499 <p>The researcher conducted a study entitled Emotional Control and its Relationship to the Tactical Performance of Players of First Division Football Clubs. The researcher used the descriptive approach, and the research tools consisted of using references, scientific sources, and personal interviews, such as questionnaires and personal interviews. The study was applied to a sample of (478) players from first division football clubs. Foot in Iraq. The researcher built an emotional control scale and then applied it to the research sample after completing the scale in its final form. The most important results were that the researcher concluded that the scale that was built proved its importance and achieved positive results in the emotional control and tactical performance of the players, and that football players have the ability to withstand all pressures. that they face during the training process and in competitions, and that they have a positive role through the ability to solve problems and make the right decisions in favor of positive research results.</p> Prof. Dr. Muslim Hasab Allah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 520 536 The effect of exercises to the aquatic environment on the rehabilitation of athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament transplantation in football players as a function of the range of motion and strength of the muscles working on the knee joint. https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1500 <p>The importance of the research came in designing exercises in the aquatic environment in qualifying athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament transplantation for football players, in terms of the range of motion and strength of the muscles working on the knee joint, with the aim of accelerating and enabling the athlete to return soundly and well as quickly as possible. This step is more important for the athlete than for the person non-athletic. The study aimed to improve the anterior cruciate ligament in football players in terms of the range of motion and strength of the muscles working on the knee joint, and to identify the effect of exercises in the aquatic environment in qualifying athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament transplantation in football players in terms of the range of motion and strength of the muscles working in the knee joint. The researcher used the experimental method in the style of one experimental group with a pre- and post-test to suit the nature and problem of the research and its objectives. The research sample included a number of players subject to surgical intervention who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament transplant. They numbered (6) players for the right knee joint, noting that the members of the research sample are players. Diyala Sports Club for Advanced Football,</p> Asst. Lec. Sabreen Qahtan Malik Asst. Prof. Dr. Lamia Abdel Sattar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 537 556 A causal model of the relationship of quality of academic life and cognitive dependence to academic procrastination among students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1501 <p>The quality of academic life, which has become a goal that everyone seeks within the educational system, hopes to achieve a stimulating educational environment and provide a supportive educational climate that helps prepare a generation of our students that keeps pace with scientific and technological innovations, and is able to face the challenges and pressures created by the knowledge revolution and cultural pluralism, because not exploiting the richness of the educational environment leads to a decrease in the learner’s motivation for continuous study, a weak ability to communicate with teachers, and a lack of internal motivation. This will lead to an increase in cognitive dependence by obtaining help from others, a lesser amount of perseverance, and avoiding the task while feeling bored and not needing knowledge, and this leads to Wasting time and poor organization, these are a number of negative behavioral manifestations that lead to academic procrastination. The research aims to identify the correlation between the quality of academic life and cognitive dependence and academic tardiness among students, as well as to build a model that explains and explains the nature of the direct and indirect causal relationship between the quality of academic life and cognitive dependence and academic tardiness among students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.</p> Muhammad Falah Jihad Prof. Dr. Diaa Jaber Muhammad Prof. Dr. Haider Abdel Redha Trad Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 557 574 The effect of special exercises on individual tactical behavior to develop the early attacking performance of basketball players under (16 years old) https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1502 <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing special exercises through tactical behavior and experimenting with them to identify their effectiveness and the extent of their impact on developing the early attack in basketball. The researchers used the experimental method in the manner of equal groups because it suits the nature and problem of the research. The research community was determined from the emerging players of Al-Hilla Club in the game of basketball, numbering (16) players from the children of the test. It was divided into two samples, the first (an exploratory sample) with a number of (6) players, while the (main sample) was with a number of (10) players, and it was divided into two experimental groups with (5) players, and a control group with (5) players. As for the sample, it is selected by a simple random method, and the researchers conducted pre-tests for the research group of adults (10) players on 6/15/2023, tests for measuring early attack in basketball, in the closed sports hall (Talent Hall) in Babylon, I began applying the appropriate exercises within the skill requirements to the experimental group on Saturday, 6/24/2023, until 8/16/2023, at a rate of three training units per week, and the time for special and tactical training in one training unit ( 40-45 minutes, after which the researchers conducted the post-tests after completing the program and with the help of the assistant staff, the post-tests for the research sample after completing the application of the special exercises, and on Sunday (8/20/2023).</p> Zainab Abdel Sada Ali Asst. Prof. Dr. Wissam Riad Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 575 593 The effect of special exercises according to the strategies (K, U, D) and (hierarchical learning) in learning to perform the skills of preparation and receiving the serve for the junior players of the Kufa Volleyball Club https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1503 <p>The research aimed to prepare special exercises according to the strategies k, u, d) and (hierarchical learning) in learning to perform the skills of preparation and receiving the serve for the juniors of the Kufa Volleyball Club. These exercises were applied for a period of two months, at the rate of two educational units per week, on the research sample of (14) players for the 2023-2024 sports season. They were divided (by lottery) into two equal groups with a ratio of (7) players for each group, and tests related to the research were conducted (preparation, receiving the serve). The results showed significant differences for the exercises prepared for both groups in the pre-post tests, and non-significant. In the post-tests, the researcher concluded that the reason for these results was the use of the two strategies: The researcher recommends using these exercises to achieve better results in various sports, especially those that depend on a wide range of movement, and emphasizing the allocation of exercises similar to technique (artistic performance), especially with such age stages, and also conducting similar studies on other games and activities.</p> Muhannad Muhammad Kadhem Abboud Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 594 617 The effect of tactical and skill exercises to the cognitive achievement and performance of some individual and group fast attack formations in handball for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1504 <p>The research aims to prepare tactical-skill exercises to develop the performance of some individual and group fast attack formations, and to know the effect of tactical-skill exercises on the cognitive achievement of handball among third-year students, and to know the effect of tactical-skill exercises on the performance of some individual and group fast attack formations. The problem of the research is evident in the presence of weakness in the performance of some individual and group rapid attack formations by students, as well as difficulty in learning them. Therefore, the researchers decided to delve into this problem through the use of tactical-skill exercises and their impact on learning the performance of individual and group rapid attack formations for students. Motor learning is one of the important and distinctive sciences and the basis on which the educational process in the field of physical education and sports science is based, due to its importance in the learner acquiring everything related to the game of handball and developing and mastering it well. Learning to perform some individual and group fast attack formations is one of the most important formations. Offensive, which is classified as an attack phase, which gives the attacking team a great opportunity to score the goal in the quickest time and with the least effort</p> Hassanein Sabah Baqir Prof. Dr. Samer Youssef Muteab Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 618 633 Primary school students aged (10-12) years (classified according to mental abilities and biomotor abilities) learn chess positions according to gender differences. https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1505 <p>The importance of the research came in teaching children (school students) aged (10-12) years, males and females, for applied positions in the game of chess, which requires evaluating their condition after they are classified by the researchers according to their mental abilities and bio-motor capabilities, and then teaching them the different playing positions. The research problem came to explain the truth of many theories that indicate that the process of learning and achievement in theoretical and practical subjects. It may be due to the mental abilities that male or female students possess, despite the difference in gender between them, and that the physical and motor abilities that each male or female student possesses have no role in the influence, or there may be an advantage for one of them over the other, especially in learning chess positions for this reason. The researchers conducted this study for verification and proof purposes. In order to achieve the objectives, the study procedures used the experimental method in the style of classified groups with successive tests for the purpose of solving the research problem, (One-group design with sequential pre- and post-tests). The objectives were to identify the difference according to gender in the mental abilities enjoyed by primary school students aged (10-12) years, and the difference according to gender in the biomotor abilities enjoyed by primary school students aged (10-12 years old). 10-12 years of age, and the difference in learning and acquisition of chess positions according to gender for primary school students who are (10-12) years old.</p> Prof. Dr. Muhammad Jassim Al-Yasiri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 634 647 The effect of educational units according to the differentiated education strategy on educational motivation and learning to perform the long jump for students https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1506 <p>The current study aimed to prepare a measure of educational motivation for first-year students in the College of Basic Education, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Diyala, and to prepare educational units according to the strategy of differentiated education in educational motivation and learning to perform the long jump for students, and to identify the effect of educational units for differentiated education in educational motivation and learning. Long jump event for students. The experimental method was used because it suits the nature of the research problem for the experimental and control groups, with a pre- and post-test. Tests were conducted to study and arrive at results using the statistical package (SPSS). The study reached a set of conclusions, including the positive impact of the educational units using the differentiated instruction method on the educational motivation and performance of the long jump event among the students of the experimental group in the post-test. The researcher recommended relying on the use of the differentiated education strategy to improve educational motivation and improve the performance of the long jump event for the students. In addition to the necessity of introducing various visual presentation methods into physical education lectures in order to see the parts of movement in detail, as well as their importance in linking the sense of hearing with sight, which in turn leads to accelerating the learning of motor skills.</p> Lec. Haider Abbas Abdel Amir Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 648 666 The effect of exercises using various teaching methods to learning and improving the level of performance stages in the discus throwing event https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1507 <p>The researcher touched on the importance of the effectiveness of discus throwing and the necessity of learning it in order to improve the level of performance of female physical education students. The problem of the research lies in the fact that the discus throwing event is one of the arena and field events that is characterized by its difficulty in terms of performance, especially for female students of the College of Physical Education. It requires motor compatibility and achieving balance and coherence between its technical stages in order to achieve the required achievement. The research aims to prepare exercises using various teaching methods that help in learning and improving the level of performance of female students. And identifying the effect of exercises according to the various teaching methods and the method used by the teacher for the female students’ performance in the discus throwing event, and knowing the difference in the effect between the exercises according to the various discs and the method used by the teacher for the female students’ performance in the discus throwing event.</p> Asst. Lec. Khaled Taha Dayie Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 667 677 The effect of special exercises with auxiliary means on the speed of performance of complex offensive skills for handball youth https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1508 <p>The importance of the research is evident in working on finding modern auxiliary training methods that can be relied upon to develop the speed of the complex offensive performance of handball players. Therefore, it was necessary to introduce special exercises and modern training devices and methods that contribute to the development of the complex offensive skills of the players. The research aims to prepare special exercises to aid in speeding up the performance of complex offensive skills for handball juniors, as well as identifying the effect of special exercises with aids in speeding up the performance of complex offensive skills for handball juniors.</p> Ali Adel Abdel Amir Prof. Dr. Atheer Abdullah Al-Lami Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 678 698 The effect of the brainstorming method based on the divergent learning style according to the Kolb model on the acquisition of some basic skills and technical performance in free swimming. https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1509 <p>The research aims to reveal the difference between the brainstorming method based on the divergent learning style according to Kolb’s model and the method used in some basic skills specified in freestyle swimming. The difference between the brainstorming method based on the divergent learning style according to Kolb’s model and the method followed at the level of technical performance in freestyle swimming. The researcher used the experimental method to suit the nature and problem of the research. The research sample was determined from third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Saladin University. They were divided into two experimental groups that used the divergent method according to Kolb’s model, and the control group used the established method. The research tools included some basic skills and a test of technical performance in freestyle swimming. It was confirmed that there was equality and homogeneity in the variables that play an influential role in the basic skills in freestyle swimming. After completing the application of the educational program and conducting post-tests, the data was processed using appropriate statistical methods, and the researcher reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which is the superiority of the brainstorming method based on the divergent learning style according to the Kolb model over the method followed in all the basic skills specified in free swimming, as well as the superiority of the brainstorming method. The mental approach based on the divergent learning style according to Kolb’s model is the method followed in the level of technical performance in freestyle swimming.</p> Asst. Prof. Dr. Shahla Ahmed Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 699 721 Self-financing and its relationship to the competitive advantage of sports club teams participating in the Iraqi stars Football League https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1510 <p>This study was prepared to identify the correlation between self-financing and competitive advantage among sports club teams participating in the Iraqi Stars Football League. We will also try to answer through this study the following questions (Does self-financing contribute to achieving a competitive advantage for sports club teams participating in the Iraq Stars Football League and what is the amount of this contribution?), and (Is there a relationship between self-financing and competitive advantage for participating sports club teams? In the Iraqi Stars Football League in Iraq?), the researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method and correlational studies to suit the nature and problem of the research. The research sample consisted of the heads and members of the administrative body of the sports clubs participating in the Iraqi Stars League in football, numbering (169). The current study aimed to build two measures (self-financing, competitive advantage) for the club teams. The sports team participating in the Iraqi Stars Football League, and through designing a questionnaire in order to verify the approaches in the theoretical framework of the independent variable and its relationship to the dependent variable, which is the competitive advantage. The hypotheses were tested based on the statistical analysis program SPSS.</p> Wadah Muhammad Fathi Asst. Prof. Dr. Alaa Hassan Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 722 750 The effect of interfering with different training methods to developing agility, motor speed, and the performance of the FAKE SWEEP, OVER STEP, and the bump–off offensive basketball skills https://joupess.uobabylon.edu.iq/index.php/pess/article/view/1511 <p>The problem of the research was embodied in the presence of weakness in some offensive skill performances and the lack of focus on them in exercises for young basketball players, despite their importance and direct connection to increasing offensive effectiveness, due to not giving sufficient time in training and focusing on developing them during the training units using the overlap in the various modern training methods in The quality of exercises performed by most coaches is that raising the training level of any player cannot be improved, whether physically, skillfully, or tactically, without developing the complex attack, which has a large role in offensive performance. As well as the movement of the player and changing his speed and direction with agility and high motor speed, the researchers wanted to delve into this study by applying training methods and interfering with the exercises within the training unit represented by (sakyo and metakon exercises) for the purpose of giving a clear and accurate scientific indication for the trainers to develop these capabilities because their development will contribute to achieving To achieve high skill performance by improving the accuracy of performance in executing the technical skills to be worked on during playing periods.</p> Ali Ishahab Abdel Hussein Asst. Prof. Dr. Samer Ahmed Hassan Prof. Dr Maher Abdel Hamza Hardan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 17 3 751 767